Australia’s measurement system covers physical, chemical, biological, legal and trade measurement. The system adapts to, services and enhances the productivity and growth of Australian industries. It aims to ensure a fair, safe, healthy and competitive Australia. The National Measurement Institute (NMI) is the peak body responsible for maintaining Australia’s measurement system.
Measurement functions (both scientific and legal), together with documentary standards, laboratory accreditation and conformity assessment activities make up Australia’s standards and conformance or ‘quality’ infrastructure.
Under the Australian Constitution, the Commonwealth has a constitutional head of power for weights and measures. Under the National Measurement Act 1960, a Chief Metrologist is appointed by the Secretary of the responsible department.
Australia’s measurement legislation
Legislation for Australia’s measurement system includes:
Australian legal units of measurement
The measurement legislation establishes Australian legal units of measurement. The units are realised through standards of measurement, for uniform use throughout Australia.
The legal units of measurement are prescribed in terms of the International System of Units (SI) established under the Metre Convention. Australia is a signatory to the Convention, which provides the basis for international agreement on units of measurement. The General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), established under the Convention and comprising representatives from the Convention’s signatory member states, is the peak global body responsible for ensuring world-wide uniformity in units of measurement.
Developing and maintaining national measurement standards
NMI maintains Australia’s primary measurement standards to realise the legal units of measurement, and provides traceability to the SI for all Australian made measurements. Traceability in measurement involves ensuring an unbroken chain of calibrations to primary measurement standards. Traceability helps ensure that measurements are comparable to each other and gives industry, researchers, regulators and consumers confidence in the accuracy of measurement results.
NMI fulfils these important roles by:
Legal metrology refers to the legislative and regulatory framework that underpins measurements and measuring instruments used for trade and legal purposes.
The framework supports and ensures confidence in accurate measurement, by helping to ensure that where measurements are made for trade and other legal purposes:
- measuring instruments are fit for purpose
- measurements are made correctly
- representations about measurements are accurate
NMI administers Australia’s trade measurement laws, including regulating measuring instruments like petrol bowsers and supermarket scales. This benefits all Australians by instilling buyers and sellers with the confidence that measurement-based transactions are fair and accurate. Australia’s trade measurement transactions are estimated to be worth more than $750 billion each year. Find out more about buying and selling goods and services by weights and other measures.
NMI has a national network of trade measurement inspectors who audit businesses to assess their trade measurement law compliance. They take appropriate action where there have been breaches of the law.
NMI also issues licences to private operators known as servicing licensees, who help to ensure businesses are using accurate measuring instruments.
Legal measuring instruments
NMI can provide a pattern approval and certification framework for:
- measuring instruments used in law enforcement
- Commonwealth, state and territory agencies who need to meet regulatory compliance
For example, to assist Australian law enforcement agencies ensure traceability in breath-alcohol analyser measurements, NMI appoints:
- approving authorities to ensure the instruments’ designs meet national measurement standards
- certifying authorities to calibrate the instruments, and to produce reference materials used in calibrations
Legal metrology authorities and utility meter verifiers
NMI recovers costs associated with administration of pattern approval, trade measurement licensing and legal metrology authority appointments.
NMI ensures international recognition and acceptance of Australia’s measurement system, by acting as the interface between the Australian and international measurement systems.
The Australian Government is a signatory to two inter-governmental measurement treaties, the Metre Convention and the International Organization for Legal Metrology (OIML) Convention.
On behalf of Australia, NMI participates in the international frameworks established under these treaties, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM MRA) and the OIML Certification System (CS). NMI’s experts participate in the CIPM and OIML scientific or technical committees.
The frameworks provide the basis for:
- international recognition of the measurement standards
- recognition of each member state’s measurement capabilities
- international harmonisation of the regulatory frameworks
This helps to ensure that goods and services can be ‘tested once, accepted everywhere’.
NMI participates on behalf of Australia in the peak regional expert measurement forums, the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme and the Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum.
Standards development committees
On behalf of Standards Australia, NMI participates in international standards development committees under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), as well as leading Australia’s delegation to the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling, on behalf of the Department of Agriculture.
These activities enable us to contribute to the development and adoption of trusted international standards, reducing the regulatory burden on Australian business.
We regularly consult with the public on measurement policies and issues. See measurement consultations on the department's Consultation Hub.
Connect with us
Trade measurement helpline
To find out more about trade measurement laws or report a suspected breach:
See our archive of technical reports on different topics of metrology research.