There are opportunities for Australian manufacturers to take advantage of the global transition to clean energy and a circular economy to build scale and competitiveness. Feedback from industry stakeholders highlighted areas of opportunity including:
- manufactured products that enable recycling or production of clean energy: examples include renewable energy components and equipment, or manufactured products and technologies that facilitate easier resource recovery at end-of-life.
- manufactured products that use recycled materials or clean energy as inputs: such as ‘green' plastics or steel.
Opportunities across these areas are growing quickly. Through detailed analysis, public consultation, drawing on industry experts’ views, and reports, the following opportunities have been identified for the Australian recycling and clean energy industry to scale over the next decade.
Manufactured products that enable recycling or clean energy
Manufactured products that use recycling or clean energy
Overlapping manufacturing opportunities
High-value, non-production activities in the value chain like design will help enable competitive onshore production in these areas. Having the capability to manufacture physical products will also enable manufacturers to capture additional forms of value through other services. In recycling, value-adding non-production activities could include designing products for locally available recycled feedstocks, or offering end-of-life services to help companies meet product stewardship obligations or demonstrate sustainability credentials to consumers. In clean energy, it could include designing products to integrate with industrial processes or the electricity system, or providing whole-of-life servicing, maintenance and repairs. All will be important for competitive manufacturers to generate full value from their investments.
Getting access to high-quality, low-cost material inputs is historically one of Australian manufacturing’s competitive pressures. The road map taskforce sees a significant opportunity to address this by better realising Australia’s potential to turn waste into resources.
Making recyclable products and cleaner feedstocks for remanufacturing
To integrate recycled materials into manufacturing processes, industry will need to scale-up innovative solutions so secondary materials can be captured in purer forms at lower prices. This will be an important enabler for downstream manufacturing opportunities, and means developing products and packaging that are recyclable, as well as developing technology capabilities that allow more material to be recycled into useable feedstocks. Developing manufacturing of recyclable products and packaging will also support the Government’s waste agenda.
Identified opportunities include:
‘Designing for circularity’ is critical to improving the quality of our waste streams and making products easier to re-use. This includes designing out problem materials, reducing the number of materials in a product, and designing for simple disassembly and recyclability. Australia can leverage our strengths in design, research, and product engineering. Good design will support smarter sorting and automation technologies. Innovations in design could be patented and then exported to global manufacturers and brands.
Smart sorting and automation technologies
Adopting innovative recycling technologies can significantly improve processing efficiency and material consistency, reducing the cost gap between virgin and recycled feedstocks:
- Digital technologies, such as AI and sensor networks, can quantify and track materials as they are processed through mechanical recycling facilities and help detect and sort materials automatically. These technologies can then make predictions to inform planning, optimise logistics, and automate processes.
- Traceability technologies like pallet barcodes, blockchain and digital product passports could enable more sophisticated material trading systems that make material sources transparent to consumers. This could help materials remain in circulation and make recycled feedstocks more appealing to customers seeking a ‘green’ edge.
- Physical technologies, such as robots, can increase recovery rates, more efficiently sort materials, and handle materials that are unsafe for workers. They can then remanufacture them into new products or energy. Existing technologies such as automated guided vehicles, sensors and predictive analytics systems can also help with improved waste source separation.
Plastic products that are difficult to mechanically recycle due to their low quality or composite nature could be converted back to their monomers or petrochemical components. These can be used as direct substitutes for virgin materials in manufacturing new products, which is particularly useful for products like food packaging which must adhere to strict food safety standards. This is yet to be deployed at commercial scale in Australia but could be integrated into the supply chains of plastic and chemical manufacturers. Clean energy could also allow these energy-intensive processes to be performed with less cost and environmental impact.
Emerging techniques to manage hard-to-recover and hazardous e-waste could include improved mechanical, optical, thermal, chemical, biological and nano-processing. To recover maximum value from e-waste, industry needs to overcome the barrier of decentralised, irregular material flows that are difficult to gather economically. This requires developing and scaling-up small scale processing technologies such as microfactories and other collection solutions, such as the National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme.
Products from recycled feedstock
International and domestic markets are looking to purchase more sustainably sourced products, and Australian feedstock suppliers are seeking markets for reprocessed materials. Australian manufacturers have an opportunity to complete this loop and develop new products that integrate recycled materials without compromising product integrity, function or cost. This will require investment in the development, testing, re-tooling, and transforming of production lines.
While the quality and potential of each material stream and its sub-streams varies, manufacturers can press for higher value applications of the available feedstocks (see Appendix C for the recycling rates of different waste streams). Higher value applications could include ‘upcycling’ into higher value products, re-use, or remanufacturing into closely equivalent products. Lower value, high volume applications (such as road base, road surfaces or fuel) can also have a role in establishing scale in the industry which can make higher value products more economic in the longer term. The ideal outcome from this road map is enabling manufacturers to derive the highest value use of recycled materials.
Leading opportunities to capture value include:
Rising demand for plastic products and increasing environmental concerns are driving strong growth for the global plastic recycling industry which was valued at $48.6 billion in 2017. There are established markets for PET and HDPE, but markets for mixed plastic have not yet been found. This has led to abundant unused material stockpiles by mechanical recycling facilities and re-processors. Both provide opportunities for Australian manufacturers.
Under the Australian Packaging Covenant Organisation, over 1500 industry participants including supermarkets, packaging companies, and retailers are pursuing targets to make all packaging recyclable, reusable or compostable; make 70% of plastic packaging recycled or composted; and have 50% recycled content across all packaging by 2025. This is driving demand for recycling packing solutions.
Glass has significant opportunities for new value capture where they are particularly high-value or high quality, for example Australia’s 13 million solar panels.  CSIRO identify that tracking high-value glass flows, improving design to increase recovery rates, and encouraging innovation in a market of a few large players will contribute to Australia’s transition to a circular economy.
Glass sand reprocessing for regional roads could enable more use of recycled glass where the high-value glass cannot be collected at scale.
E-waste is the fastest-growing waste stream in Australia and the world. In 2019, the combined value of raw materials in electronic waste in Australia and New Zealand was estimated to be approximately $900 million. Less than 10% was recycled compared to a global recycling rate of 17%. Scarce and valuable raw materials, such as gold, platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements are being lost through poor e-waste management. As much as 7% of the world’s gold may currently be contained in e-waste, and overall e-waste is richer in metal than land-mined ores. 
The value of materials in electrical and electronic goods like circuit boards, along with increased privacy concerns around safe disposal of personal equipment, provide opportunities for manufacturers in Australia to follow the lead of pilot plants overseas to integrate captured materials into their processes. Techno-economic analysis of processing technologies suggests profitable projects could be set up in Australia above the scale of 30 000 tonnes per year.
More than 90% of textile waste (including leather and rubber) currently goes unrecovered in Australia, one of the lowest rates of any material stream.   Industry has the opportunity to transform this waste (mostly from clothing) into new raw materials, and identify high-value recycling streams and sorting processes that meet commercial-scale needs. Less than 1% of global material used to produce clothing is recycled into new clothing, representing a loss of more than $120 billion worth of materials each year. Demand for clothing is growing quickly, with clothing sales expected to triple by 2050. Opportunities for industry include recycling cellulose-based fibres (such as cotton and viscose), and finding solutions to reduce costs of recycling of blended materials. Potentially recoverable materials include PET, cotton, nylon, acrylic, and viscose. These could be used in new products by the textile manufacturing industry or in other manufacturing sectors, such as packaging.
Alternative product applications
Alternative product applications can help manufacturers realise more remanufacturing opportunities from available materials. This may require manufacturers working with recyclers to secure base materials at suitable volume, quality and cost; or retool processes to pivot to secondary material. For example:
More sustainable forms of cement and concrete are under development. Wagners has developed a concrete that uses industrial waste by-products, slag and fly ash as a binding agent, resulting in 80 to 90% lower emissions than Portland cement. Researchers at RMIT have manufactured concrete using rubber tyres and demolition waste to create a recycled alternative that is up to 35% stronger than traditional concrete. Waste glass is also an emerging option to improve the sustainability of the energy-intensive product, and create a market for waste glass.
Tyre-derived products (TDP)
From 1 December 2021 Australia will prohibit the export of used, unprocessed tyres so alternative uses will need to be found to avoid waste management issues. The most common TDP is crumb rubber for use in roads and playground surfacing. We can also increase the market for TDPs by developing innovative new uses, such as spray-on concrete. In 2018-19 only 14% of Australia’s tyre consumption were processed into TDPs or re-treaded for reuse. The rest was exported, sent to landfill or stockpiled.
Organic waste-derived products
Organic waste-derived products: Under the National Waste Policy Action Plan, governments have set a target to halve the amount of organic waste (mostly livestock manure, bagasse, food and garden waste) sent to landfill by 2030. Around half of organic waste is unrecovered in Australia. The most common uses of recycled organic waste are composting, mulching, and processing into fertiliser and livestock feed, but innovation may make higher value manufactured products more feasible:
- Biofuels from waste—including organic, agricultural and forest residues—are an emerging opportunity, where biofuels can be used as a feedstock for manufacturing or as fuel for transport and machinery. Geoscience Australia observe Australia’s potential bioenergy resources are large. Producing 20 gigalitres of biofuel per year in Australia could support creation of up to 250,000 jobs mostly in regional areas, and up to $30 billion of investment.
- Synthetic biology technologies could use organic waste and crop surplus to produce new foods, animal feed and nutraceuticals, or biomaterials for textiles (such as Bolt Threads’ mushroom-based leather ‘Mylo’) and other applications. Valorisation technologies can also extract valuable components, such as starch and oils, to sell at higher prices.
Large-scale deployment of clean energy provides Australian manufacturers with opportunities to tap into supply chain opportunities for manufactured hardware and downstream components. Access to low cost clean energy can enhance the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing and for pursuing markets that increasingly value low emissions industrial products.
Making components for large-scale and industrial renewable systems
Investment in large-scale and industrial renewable energy projects in Australia provide a significant opportunity to develop domestic manufacturing supply chains for the components which feed into those projects.
Large industrial companies—including miners, manufacturers, and energy exporters—are increasingly moving to adopt clean energy to access the benefits and opportunities of new technology and address demands from shareholders and customers. For example, Fortescue has disclosed its intention to develop 300 GW of clean energy capacity globally. That is equivalent to around 6 times the current National Electricity Market capacity. 
Large industrial applications are a relatively new frontier for clean energy technology. Manufactured solutions are not always commercialised or in production at scale. Australia has major opportunities where:
- global incumbency is not yet established
- we have emerging domestic demand
- we have innovation and intellectual property advantages.
Where this occurs, Australia could have the competitive elements to become a major global manufacturer. Opportunities could include:
- Electrolysers (and other hydrogen production technologies) are in an early state of global scale-up. Proposed electrolyser demand from Australia’s largest proposed hydrogen project would be more than 100 times greater than global electrolyser shipments in 2018. Australia could leverage its market scale and RD&D strength to establish relationships with global suppliers and expand our role in the value chain.
- High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission technology is advancing quickly. Industry is monitoring proposals such as India’s ‘One Sun, One World, One Grid’ project and potential international electricity interconnections among Southeast Asian countries. Large local HVDC projects, like the proposed Australia-ASEAN Power Link, could present an opportunity for Australia to add value to aluminium and copper resources, and become a manufacturing hub of speciality transmission cabling for the region.
- Thermal energy solutions are required for some large industrial systems that need to run 24/7 or need clean heat. A number of world-leading Australian companies such as Vast Solar, Raygen, Graphite Energy, 1414, CCT Energy, and MGA Thermal are developing innovative technologies to provide this. If these technologies can be fully commercialised, they will have global application to help decarbonise industrial energy systems.
- Scalable, modularised, and rapidly deployable components that allow renewable energy systems to avoid site-specific engineering or construction logistics, such as 5B’s Maverick system, offer a compelling value proposition as corporate and industrial demand for clean energy accelerates worldwide. Assembling more components in manufacturing facilities can reduce project development time, reduce costs considerably and shift employment from a short-term construction workforce to a stable, skilled manufacturing workforce.
There are opportunities for firms to become more competitive in our domestic market. Renewable energy project developers who prioritise local content have historically had limited options. For example, Australia currently has one solar panel manufacturer and one manufacturer focused uniquely on wind towers. Both have struggled to manage fluctuating demand. The growing scale of Australia’s onshore demand, including from renewable energy zones and export-oriented renewable projects, could provide such producers with the opportunity to scale production and demonstrate capabilities to integrate system design, manufacturing, installation, servicing and end-of-life management.
With market volume and initial scale-up support, more local manufacturers could be competitive in more parts of the clean energy supply chain. This offers significant opportunities to onshore industrial production, especially for clean energy megaprojects which could have the scale to support completely new approaches. For example, some parts of renewable energy systems are hard to transport, such as wind turbine blades, wind turbine towers, transmission towers, heliostats, and solar panel frames and trackers, increasing the business case for manufacturing them here. Balance of plant equipment for large-scale energy systems may also need to be tailored to integrate with site or process specific requirements or meet Australian standards or regulations.
Making enabling technologies for distributed energy systems
While industrial users are seeking larger renewable energy systems, small-scale energy users, such as households, and the energy systems they are part of, also demand new manufacturing solutions.
Electricity networks are becoming more distributed and more decentralised. Australia is at the forefront of these accelerating trends, with more than one-in-four households adopting rooftop solar. Digital and smart technologies are essential for managing these systems and Australia has strong capabilities. Data collection, forecasting, automation, controllability, and performance prediction will be needed to help the elements of these systems, like rooftop solar PV, behind-the-meter batteries, and electric vehicles work harmoniously to provide greater value and maintain system security. These capabilities will need to be embedded in the equipment these systems use.
The road map taskforce suggests Australia, as one of the most decentralised energy systems, has a platform to develop and manufacture some of these important enabling technologies, including for international customers in future waves of energy transition. Our competitive proposition will generally flow from quality and innovation, rather than cost competitiveness on low margin products like photovoltaic cells. Australian manufacturers can also be trusted technology suppliers for customers who value cybersecurity or sovereign supply in digitally-enabled devices for distributed energy systems.
Key opportunities to provide globally exportable solutions include:
- Microgrids, and similar systems like remote area power systems (RAPs) and standalone power systems, can provide flexibility, resilience, and lower costs for more distributed energy systems. Australia is in an almost unique position as an advanced economy with a relatively high proportion of energy demand in remote locations (for example mining users). We also have world-leading experience in developing systems like these which could be applicable to many potential customers. This includes emerging markets in Africa and Indo-Pacific, who are looking to bring electricity to more citizens and lack legacy grid infrastructure.
- Advanced inverters, converters and EV chargers are needed to help connect DC power systems (such as solar, batteries or electric vehicles) into our AC-based power grid and maintain system security. New functions need to be brought to commerciality quickly, for example, to enable synthetic inertia, voltage control, and observability and controllability for grid operators. These will require manufacturers to develop integrated software and hardware solutions. Australian companies such as Tritium are already excelling at developing these and exporting them to international markets.
- Next generation solar PV modules and arrays. Competitive opportunities for solar PV modules in the domestic market will be assisted by the difficulty of transporting heavy glass products. This would involve translating cutting-edge Australian IP into advanced products, such as:
- specialised PV manufacturing process improvements (such as replacing expensive metal inputs or making high efficiency solar cells)
- innovative pre-fabricated modules and arrays.
Enabling technologies for distributed systems (such as digitalisation and moving to modular solutions) will also be applicable in large industrial systems. There may also be opportunities to manufacture distributed energy products like batteries and electric vehicles (including buses and heavy vehicles), building on our position as a leading resources nation.
Moving up the value chain, from mining to making
Electric vehicles, batteries, and other advanced clean energy technologies require critical minerals and important base metals. Australia supplies many of these raw inputs and already participates in the value chain for these products.
Australia has strong prospects to capture more value by moving ‘up’ this value chain—that is, moving beyond resource extraction to more advanced onshore processing. This includes processing of primary ores into the value-added oxides, alloys and precursor materials which feed into more advanced manufacturing products (see the Resources Technology and Critical Minerals Processing road map).
Several Australian companies are also pursuing battery manufacturing and similar opportunities, by developing niche or specialised applications. For example, current generation batteries can be prone to performance and efficiency issues in hot climates, and batteries suitable for Australia’s harsh climate could have wide applications in developing markets. The energy management and cybersecurity functions of embedded software electronics can also be effective product differentiators.
Companies such as Magellan Power specialise in providing renewable energy and storage systems to the Australian mining industry. Energy Renaissance is looking to apply unique intellectual property to manufacture hot climate, reinforced battery systems from its facility in the Hunter Valley. Australian companies have also developed grid management solutions enabling batteries to be controlled in virtual power plants and for system security.
These domestic supply chains could be scaled-up in future as more value-added minerals processing takes place in Australia.
Energy-intensive manufacturing from clean energy
In the longer term, falling renewable technology costs and harnessing carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS) could see Australia achieve an industrial advantage in energy-intensive manufacturing. Along with other clean energy technologies discussed in this road map, manufacturers adopting clean heat technologies (including solar thermal, heat pumps, hydrogen and bioenergy) will be important for producing low emissions industrial products. These include steel, aluminium, cement, and ammonia (as both a fertiliser and possible low emissions fuel). Recycling facilities are also large energy users in their own right.
The First Low Emissions Technology Statement has identified the opportunity to preserve and expand the onshore manufacturing of energy-intensive products, and set priority technology stretch goals to reduce the cost of low carbon materials. The Government estimates that low emissions technologies could position Australia to generate over $30 billion a year of new export revenue from energy-intensive, low-emissions products by 2040.
Australian manufacturing facilities are moving in this direction. For example, Sun Metals (operator of Queensland’s biggest zinc refinery) has committed to power its entire operations with renewable electricity within 20 years. Sun Metals have developed a 151 MW solar farm co-located with the refinery and are working with the Queensland Government to establish a hydrogen production facility for export and use in industrial purposes.
Regions such as the La Trobe Valley in Victoria, the Hunter Valley in NSW, and Gladstone in Queensland offer the natural resources, existing infrastructure, skilled workforces and local communities needed to support energy-intensive manufacturing from clean energy. Large-scale renewable energy deployments (such as renewable energy zones) are other possible locations for new manufacturing facilities which take advantage of the reduced need for electricity transmission or risks of network congestion.
Overlapping manufacturing opportunities
Recycling clean energy components and batteries
Manufacturers are well positioned to offer whole-of-life servicing and maintenance of clean energy equipment and components like batteries. This extends to end-of-life solutions.
- Solar PV: By 2050 it is expected there will be over 1,500 kilotonnes of waste from retired solar panels, up from a mere 2.7 kilotonnes in 2018. A typical solar PV module consists mostly of glass, then polymer, aluminium, silicon, and copper. Dissolving the glue that binds together a module’s components is difficult, and it is not uncommon for entire systems to be replaced prematurely because of damage to one part. Improving the technical capability of dissembling a solar PV module (as well as addressing the initial design), will improve resource recovery while minimising waste to landfill.
- Wind turbines are also complicated and costly to disassemble. While there are recyclable materials in the components of the turbines—such as concrete, steel and copper—blades are primarily made from composite materials which are not yet commonly recyclable. The standard lifetime of a wind turbine is 20-25 years, an age approached by only 2 of the 101 wind farms in Australia. Nonetheless, the capacity to recycle and remanufacture them will need to be developed soon.
- Battery recycling opportunities include ‘second life’ applications (e.g. transfer of refurbished batteries from transport to stationary applications) and deconstruction of batteries into basic materials.
- Australian lithium ion battery (LIB) waste is growing by 20% annually, as a direct result of increased uptake of rechargeable electronic equipment and electric vehicles. In 2016, only 2% of the 3,300 tonnes of LIB waste we generated was collected and exported for offshore recycling. By 2036 LIB waste generation is forecasted to reach between 100,000 and 188,000—an increase of up to 5700%. The potential for value capture for Australia is in the billions.
Manufacturers can improve their competitive advantage by offering pre- and post- production services to help address end-of-life issues with clean energy technology. Companies who can develop solutions to these emerging issues, and integrate end-of-life solutions to their service offerings, will have an advantage against international competitors and opportunities to capture market share.
Making greentech products from advanced materials
High-quality, innovative, and advanced materials could offer Australia a competitive edge. Advanced materials could play important roles in assisting energy transition, for example carbon fibre in new wind turbine blades or light-weighting advanced vehicles. Alternative conducting materials, for example using graphene, could enable advanced electricity and battery technologies. Others could help address recycling challenges, reduce landfill and protect oceans by replacing problematic or unnecessary plastics.
Development of new alternative materials can help make products more durable, enable more sustainable production, and allow for more material and product re-use and manufacture, for example in bio-based composites or synthetic textiles derived from waste.
Australia has advanced materials manufacturers, such as Omni Tanker and Carbon Revolution moving to scale-up production based on their innovative IP. Growth companies like these may represent a leverageable position to use Australian IP to support local jobs and potentially anchor adjacent industries using composite material capabilities that are highly transferable to other sectors.
18 Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering (2020) Towards a Waste Free Future: Technology Readiness in Waste and Resource Recovery ↵
19 Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering (2020) Towards a Waste Free Future: Technology Readiness in Waste and Resource Recovery ↵
20 Schandl H, King S, Walton A, Kaksonen AH, Tapsuwan S and Baynes TM (2020) National circular economy roadmap for plastics, glass, paper and tyres. CSIRO, Australia. ↵
21 Infrastructure Victoria (2020) Advice on recycling & resource recovery infrastructure April 2020 ↵
22 Microfactories developed by UNSW specialise in reforming e-waste (and other hard-to-recycle waste) into high quality ‘green’ materials. These include plastic filaments and metal alloys that can be used for further advanced manufacturing. Victoria has recently acquired an e-waste processing technology known as BluBox. BluBox is a 40ft container that can process next generation e-waste such as flat panel displays, smart phones, tablets and laptops. Instead of exporting it, this technology allows complete processing of e-waste in Australia, and scales up our processing capability. For example, it usually takes 125 hours for a person to manually dismantle one tonne of LCD televisions, while the BluBox can do the same in one hour. ↵
23 Locock, KES (2017) The Recycled Plastics Market: Global Analysis and Trends. CSIRO, Australia. ↵
26 Schandl H, King S, Walton A, Kaksonen AH, Tapsuwan S and Baynes TM (2020) National circular economy roadmap for plastics, glass, paper and tyres. CSIRO, Australia. ↵
27 Schandl H, King S, Walton A, Kaksonen AH, Tapsuwan S and Baynes TM (2020) National circular economy roadmap for plastics, glass, paper and tyres. CSIRO, Australia. ↵
28 Infrastructure Victoria (2020) Advice on recycling & resource recovery infrastructure April 2020 ↵
31 Abdelbasir S. et al (2020) Waste-Derived Nanoparticles: Synthesis Approaches, Environmental Applications, and Sustainability Considerations ↵
32 Ghodrat, M., Rhamdhani, M. A., Brooks, G., Masood, S., & Corder, G. (2016). Techno economic analysis of electronic waste processing through black copper smelting route. Journal of Cleaner Production, 126, 178-190. ↵
36 Ellen Macarthur Foundation (2017) A new textiles economy: redesigning fashion’s future ↵
39 From 1 December 2021 tyres can only be able to exported for re-treading to a verified re-treading facility or if processed into crumbs, buffings, granules, shreds or tyre-derived fuel. ↵
41 Schandl H, King S, Walton A, Kaksonen AH, Tapsuwan S and Baynes TM (2020) National circular economy roadmap for plastics, glass, paper and tyres. CSIRO, Australia ↵
47 Fortescue Metals Group (2021) Quarterly Production Report—Investor and Analyst Call transcript ↵
48 DISER estimate based on project plans for Asian Renewable Energy Hub and BloombergNEF data on global electrolyser installations. ↵
49 Industry consultation ↵
50 BloombergNEF ↵
51 Australia’s mining and resources sector is increasingly turning to microgrids incorporating a mix of technologies to ensure cheaper, cleaner, reliable electricity. For example, Agnew gold mine has a microgrid including an 18 MW wind farm, a 4 MW solar farm and a 13 MW battery system. The solar component was accredited in August 2019 and the wind component in February 2020. DeGrussa, Granny Smith, and Nova Nickel mines provide other accredited small-scale examples of microgrids in mining. Source: Information from the Clean Energy Regulator (2021). ↵
52 Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (2020) Australia’s Technology Investment Roadmap: Discussion Paper, p.30 ↵
53 Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (2020) Technology Investment Roadmap: First Low Emissions Technology Statement ↵
54 RE100 (2020) QLD’s biggest zing refinery joins RE100—Sun Metals commits to use 100% renewable electricity accessed 1 February 2021 ↵
55 Clean Energy Council submission ↵
56 Clean Energy Council submission ↵
57 Salim HK, Stewart R, Sahin O, Dudley M (2019) End-of-life management of solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems ↵
58 Clean Energy Council submission ↵
61 Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering (2020) Towards a Waste Free Future: Technology Readiness in Waste and Resource Recovery ↵