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About these inventories

The State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2019 provides an overview of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for Australia’s states and territories on a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) accounting basis.

The state and territory emission estimates in this report are based on national estimates in the National Inventory Report 2019, submitted to the UNFCCC.

The State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2019 are prepared consistently with how the Australian Government will acquit its emission reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement. From this issue, we apply the 100-year time horizon GWP values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) to estimate emissions. This is consistent with rules adopted under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement (Decision 18/CMA.1 Annex 2.D Paragraph 37).

The State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories are part of Australia’s National Greenhouse Accounts. The accounts are comprised of the:

  • Quarterly Update of Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory
  • State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories
  • National Inventory by Economic Sector
  • National Inventory Report prepared under the reporting provisions applicable to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol (KP)

The emission estimates for these inventories are prepared in accordance with international guidelines and are subject to annual review by international experts. The methodologies for the estimation of emissions are in Australia’s National Inventory Report.

International guidelines

The state and territory emission estimates in this report are based on estimates in the National Inventory Report 2019, submitted to the UNFCCC.

Those estimates have been prepared consistent with the Revision of the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories for Parties included in Annex I to the Convention agreed by the Conference of Parties at its nineteenth session (decision 24/CP.19). This includes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2006).

The methodologies used to estimate national emissions have been improved over time. They will continue to be refined as new information emerges, and as international practice evolves. In that context, the national emission estimation methods were also informed by:

  • 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2019)
  • 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands (IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement)

The aim is to ensure that the estimates of national emissions are accurate, transparent, complete, consistent through time and comparable with those produced in the inventories of other countries.

Categories in these inventories and the National Greenhouse Accounts are consistent with the UNFCCC and IPCC reporting guidelines.

Energy

The ‘Energy’ sector is made up of many different sources, including:

  • ‘Stationary energy’ is mainly greenhouse gas emissions from the production of electricity and other direct combustion of fossil fuels in industries such as manufacturing and construction.
  • ‘Transport’ comprises greenhouse gas emissions from air, road, rail and shipping transportation.
  • ‘Fugitive emissions’ comprises the greenhouse gas emissions from the extraction and distribution of coal, oil and natural gas.

Agriculture

The ‘Agriculture’ sector comprises the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide only (that is, non-carbon dioxide gases) from livestock, crops, and agricultural and forest soils.

Industrial processes

The ‘Industrial processes and product use’ sector comprises the direct greenhouse gas emissions from:

  • chemical and or physical transformation of materials
  • consumption of synthetic greenhouse gases

Waste

The ‘Waste’ sector comprises the greenhouse gas emissions from:

  • disposal of solid waste to land
  • treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater
  • incineration of municipal and clinical waste
  • biological treatment of solid waste

Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF)

The LULUCF sector is made up of several sources, including:

  • ‘Forest land’ includes all lands with a tree height of at least 2 metres and crown canopy cover of 20% or more and lands with systems with a woody biomass vegetation structure that currently fall below but which, in situ, could potentially reach the threshold values of the definition of forest land. Young natural stands and all plantations which have yet to reach a crown density of 20% or tree height of 2 metres are included under forest. So are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of either human intervention, such as harvesting, or natural causes, but which are expected to revert to forest. Forest land does not include woody horticulture which meets the forest threshold parameters; this land is classified as croplands. Australia has adopted a minimum forest area of 0.2 ha.
  • ‘Cropland’ includes all land that is used for continuous cropping and those lands managed as crop-pasture (grassland) rotations. Non-CO2 emissions from ‘cropland remaining cropland’ are reported in the ‘Agriculture’ sector.
  • The ‘grassland’ category represents a diverse range of climate, management and vegetation cover. The ‘grassland’ category also includes sub-forest forms of woody vegetation (shrubs).
  • ‘Settlements’ include areas of residential and industrial infrastructure, including cities and towns, and transport networks. The area of the ‘settlements’ land use classification is based on information sourced from the ABARES catchments scale land use data. It includes additional land use classes such as manufacturing and industry, commercial services, transport and communications including airports etc. Land areas that meet the definition of forest land are reported under the ‘forest land’ category.
  • ‘Wetlands’ include areas of perennial lakes, reservoirs, swamps and major water course areas derived from the Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric (AHGF) data published by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. It also includes all existing wetlands as defined in the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) dataset published by our department. Land areas that meet the definition of ‘forest land’, such as mangroves, are reported under the ‘forest land’ category.
  • The ‘other land’ category includes bare soil, rock and other land areas that do not fall into any of the other five categories according to ABARES’ catchment scale land use map of Australia (version 5).

The allocation of forest conversion areas to ‘cropland’ or ‘grassland’ is designated by the relative frequency of the management practices within the particular ABS Statistical Local Areas and soil type in which it occurred.

Where there has been direct human-induced conversion from grass to forest, these lands are classified and reported as ‘land converted to forest’. This includes observed regrowth on previously cleared lands. The generation of woody vegetation on ‘grassland’ from natural seed sources is classified as ‘land converted to forest land’ or ‘grassland remaining grassland’, depending on whether the vegetation meets the criteria for ‘forest land’.

In cases where there is a temporary change in forest cover, due to a forest harvest or fire, the land remains in the ‘forest land’ category unless a subsequent land use change is identified.

The permanent conversion of ‘forest land’ to other land uses is distinguished from a temporary removal or loss of forest cover. Changes in forest cover due to natural events (e.g. fire, drought) or changes that occur within land tenures where it is expected that the land will revert to forest (e.g. harvested forest, national park) are monitored for a period of time, depending upon the type of forest land use. In the absence of land use change, areas without forest cover that have entered the monitoring system continue to be classified as ‘forest’ provided that the time since forest cover loss is shorter than the number of years within which tree establishment is expected. After that time period, lands that have lost forest cover due to direct human-induced actions, have undergone land use change, and failed to regenerate are classified as converted to the appropriate non-forest land use classification.

Gases reported in these estimates

This report covers sources of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sinks resulting from human (anthropogenic) activities for the major greenhouse gases:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • methane (CH4)
  • nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

In accordance with IPCC guidelines, Australia’s emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are considered negligible and are not estimated.

GWPs have been used for each of the major greenhouse gases to convert them to carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e). As greenhouse gases vary in their radiative activity and in their atmospheric residence time, converting emissions into CO2-e allows the integrated effect of emissions of the various gases to be compared.

From the State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2019, estimates are developed applying the 100-year time horizon GWP values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) to estimate emissions. This is consistent with rules adopted under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement (Decision 18/CMA.1 Annex 2.D Paragraph 37).

Reporting on external territories

The geographical coverage of the National Inventory by State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories also includes emissions from:

  • Norfolk Island
  • Christmas Island
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Heard and McDonald Islands
  • Australia’s Antarctic Program operations in the Antarctic

The following external territories are covered but are included in the respective state statistical territories by the Australian Bureau of Statistics:

  • Coral Sea Islands (Queensland)
  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Northern Territory)

Uncertainty analysis

Uncertainty is inherent within any kind of estimation. Uncertainty assessments at a sectoral level are reported in the National Inventory Report. Overall, at the national inventory level including LULUCF, the uncertainty of the emissions estimates level has been assessed at 4.2%. While no quantitative estimates have been produced, our department assesses that the uncertainties for emission estimates for these inventories, particularly the smaller states and territories, will be somewhat higher than for the national inventory.

Recalculations since the last report

Recalculations in the 2019 report have occurred mainly as a result of a change to global warming potentials.

Starting from this issue, estimates are developed applying the 100-year time horizon GWP values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). This is consistent with rules adopted under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement (Decision 18/CMA.1 Annex 2.D Paragraph 37).

Before this issue, the GWPs used were the 100-year time-horizon GWPs contained in the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of Climate Science (AR4), in accordance with previous UNFCCC decisions. Recalculations have been performed to the whole time-series of emissions estimates from 1990 to 2019 to adhere to the UNFCCC requirement of time-series consistency.

Other sources of recalculations relate to method improvements applied to the National Inventory Report 2019,on which the State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2019 is based. See Chapter 10 of Volume 2 of the National Inventory Report 2019 (April 2021) for further information on method development.

A sectoral breakdown of National, State and Territory greenhouse gas emissions recalculations for 2005 and 2018 appears in Table 1 below.

Table 1A: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories recalculations (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia)

Sectors/key subsectors

Australia

New South Wales

Queensland

Victoria

Western Australia

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Energy

1.8

-1.2

1.9

1.1

1.1

1.8

-0.1

-1.7

-0.9

-2.0

Stationary Energy

0.2

0.7

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.1

Energy Industries

0.1

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Electricity generation

-0.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other energy industries

0.2

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Manufacturing and construction

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other sectors

0.1

-0.2

0.0

-0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.1

Transport

-0.2

-0.8

-0.1

-0.7

0.0

1.0

0.0

-0.9

0.0

0.1

Fugitive Fuels

1.8

-1.1

2.0

1.8

1.1

0.3

-0.1

-0.7

-0.9

-1.9

Industrial Processes

-0.7

-3.5

-0.2

-1.2

-0.2

-0.7

-0.1

-0.9

-0.1

-0.4

Agriculture

5.9

5.0

1.5

1.2

1.6

1.6

1.3

1.0

0.6

0.4

Livestock

6.9

6.2

1.8

1.5

1.9

1.9

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

Other Agriculture

-1.0

-1.2

-0.3

-0.3

-0.3

-0.3

-0.2

-0.2

-0.2

-0.2

Waste

1.6

1.3

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

-1.6

-0.6

1.7

10.8

0.4

0.2

-3.8

-6.3

0.7

-3.9

Inventory recalculations

7.0

1.0

5.5

12.5

3.3

3.1

-2.4

-7.6

0.5

-5.7

Table 1B: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories recalculations (South Australia, Northern Territory, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory)

Sectors/key subsectors

Australia

South Australia

Northern Territory

Tasmania

Australian Capital Territory (partial inventory)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2005

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e) 2018

Energy

1.8

-1.2

0.1

-0.4

-0.3

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

Stationary Energy

0.2

0.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Energy Industries

0.1

0.8

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

IE

IE

Electricity generation

-0.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

IE

IE

Other energy industries

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

IE

IE

Manufacturing and construction

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

IE

IE

Other sectors

0.1

-0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

IE

IE

IE

IE

Transport

-0.2

-0.8

0.0

-0.3

0.0

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

Fugitive Fuels

1.8

-1.1

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

Industrial Processes

-0.7

-3.5

0.0

-0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.1

0.0

-0.1

Agriculture

5.9

5.0

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

Livestock

6.9

6.2

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

Other Agriculture

-1.0

-1.2

-0.1

-0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Waste

1.6

1.3

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

-1.6

-0.6

-0.4

0.3

0.1

-0.9

-0.4

-0.8

0.0

-0.1

Inventory recalculations

7.0

1.0

0.2

0.1

0.1

-0.7

-0.3

-0.6

0.0

-0.1

Sectoral greenhouse gas emissions

A detailed sectoral breakdown of National, State and Territory greenhouse gas emissions for 2005 and 2019 appears in Tables 2 and 3 below.

Table 2A: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories and contribution to national emissions, 2005 (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia)

Sectors

Australia

New South Wales

Queensland

Victoria

Western Australia

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Energy

401.1

120.1

29.9%

93.4

23.3%

104.5

26.1%

50.6

12.6%

Stationary Energy

278.9

75.5

27.1%

64.6

23.1%

82.0

29.4%

36.5

13.1%

Energy Industries

216.5

62.0

28.6%

52.9

24.4%

66.7

30.8%

22.5

10.4%

Electricity generation

196.7

58.1

29.5%

47.6

24.2%

63.5

32.3%

17.6

8.9%

Other energy industries

19.9

3.9

19.7%

5.4

27.1%

3.3

16.4%

5.0

25.1%

Manufacturing and construction

41.5

8.8

21.2%

9.0

21.7%

7.1

17.0%

11.5

27.8%

Other sectors

20.2

4.7

23.1%

2.6

12.8%

8.2

40.3%

2.5

12.2%

Transport

82.0

24.8

30.2%

17.9

21.8%

20.2

24.6%

10.3

12.5%

Fugitive Fuels

40.8

19.8

48.7%

11.0

26.9%

2.4

5.8%

3.7

9.1%

Industrial Processes

31.1

14.4

46.1%

5.3

16.9%

3.1

9.9%

3.8

12.3%

Agriculture

86.0

22.0

25.6%

22.6

26.3%

18.1

21.0%

11.4

13.3%

Livestock

64.3

16.6

25.8%

17.8

27.6%

13.3

20.7%

7.8

12.1%

Other Agriculture

21.7

5.4

24.8%

4.8

22.3%

4.8

22.0%

3.7

16.9%

Waste

16.0

5.8

36.2%

2.8

17.8%

4.4

27.2%

1.6

10.1%

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

89.4

4.2

4.7%

66.5

74.4%

-8.6

-9.6%

8.6

9.6%

Inventory total

624.2

166.4

26.7%

190.6

30.5%

121.4

19.5%

76.0

12.2%

  1. These emissions estimates are reported using UNFCCC classifications.
  2. The State and Territory emissions estimates are consistent with the methodology applied for the 2019 National Greenhouse Gas Accounts. In the future, these estimates will be subject to revision in line with ongoing methodological development work being undertaken by the Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources to refine the national inventory estimates.
Table 2B: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories and contribution to national emissions, 2005 (South Australia, Northern Territory, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory)

Sectors

Australia

South Australia

Northern Territory

Tasmania

Australian Capital Territory (partial inventory)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Energy

401.1

24.0

6.0%

4.8

1.2%

3.8

0.9%

0.9

0.2%

Stationary Energy

278.9

14.2

5.1%

3.6

1.3%

1.9

0.7%

0.0

0.0%

Energy Industries

216.5

10.2

4.7%

1.6

0.7%

0.5

0.2%

IE

IE

Electricity generation

196.7

8.1

4.1%

1.4

0.7%

0.5

0.3%

IE

IE

Other energy industries

19.9

2.1

10.5%

0.2

1.2%

0.0

0.0%

IE

IE

Manufacturing and construction

41.5

2.3

5.6%

1.8

4.3%

1.0

2.4%

IE

IE

Other sectors

20.2

1.7

8.5%

0.2

1.0%

IE

IE

IE

IE

Transport

82.0

6.0

7.3%

1.0

1.2%

1.8

2.3%

0.9

1.1%

Fugitive Fuels

40.8

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

Industrial Processes

31.1

3.0

9.6%

0.1

0.4%

1.5

4.8%

0.1

0.3%

Agriculture

86.0

6.5

7.6%

2.9

3.4%

2.4

2.8%

0.0

0.0%

Livestock

64.3

4.6

7.2%

2.4

3.7%

1.9

2.9%

0.0

0.1%

Other Agriculture

21.7

1.9

8.7%

0.5

2.5%

0.6

2.7%

0.0

0.0%

Waste

16.0

0.8

5.2%

0.1

0.8%

0.5

2.8%

0.2

1.4%

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

89.4

1.3

1.5%

6.2

6.9%

11.2

12.5%

0.2

0.2%

Inventory total

624.2

35.6

5.7%

14.1

2.3%

19.3

3.1%

1.4

0.2%

  1. These emissions estimates are reported using UNFCCC classifications.
  2. The State and Territory emissions estimates are consistent with the methodology applied for the 2019 National Greenhouse Gas Accounts. In the future, these estimates will be subject to revision in line with ongoing methodological development work being undertaken by the Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources to refine the national inventory estimates.
  3. The difference between the national and the sum of the State and Territory emissions (less than 0.2%) reflects the inclusion of military transport and external territories in the national inventory. Numbers may also not sum to totals due to rounding.
  4. Uncertainty assessments at a sectoral level are reported in the national inventory. While no quantitative estimates have been produced, the department assesses that the uncertainties for emission estimates for these inventories, particularly the smaller States and Territories, will be somewhat higher than for the national inventory.
  5. The NSW inventory includes ACT emissions from the Stationary Energy sector.
  6. NA Not Applicable, IE Included Elsewhere, NO Not Occurring, NE Not Estimated.
Table 3A: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories and contribution to national emissions, 2019 (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia)

Sectors

Australia

New South Wales

Queensland

Victoria

Western Australia

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Energy

433.2

108.5

25.0%

118.4

27.3%

87.0

20.1%

84.3

19.5%

Stationary Energy

278.9

67.1

24.0%

76.6

27.4%

61.3

22.0%

56.6

20.3%

Energy Industries

213.8

55.8

26.1%

64.3

30.1%

46.9

21.9%

36.5

17.1%

Electricity generation

179.4

51.9

28.9%

51.7

28.8%

43.9

24.4%

25.0

14.0%

Other energy industries

34.4

4.0

11.5%

12.6

36.7%

3.0

8.8%

11.4

33.2%

Manufacturing and construction

40.8

6.2

15.3%

9.1

22.4%

4.8

11.7%

16.8

41.3%

Other sectors

23.6

5.0

21.3%

3.1

13.4%

9.7

41.0%

3.3

14.0%

Transport

100.3

28.7

28.6%

23.6

23.5%

22.7

22.6%

14.9

14.8%

Fugitive Fuels

54.7

12.7

23.2%

18.2

33.3%

3.0

5.4%

12.8

23.5%

Industrial Processes

31.8

12.9

40.8%

5.8

18.4%

3.3

10.5%

4.3

13.7%

Agriculture

74.8

16.3

21.8%

21.4

28.6%

15.6

20.8%

9.9

13.2%

Livestock

54.0

12.3

22.8%

16.9

31.2%

10.8

20.1%

5.6

10.4%

Other Agriculture

20.8

4.0

19.1%

4.5

21.7%

4.7

22.7%

4.3

20.4%

Waste

13.8

5.0

36.0%

2.6

18.8%

2.8

20.5%

1.9

13.8%

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

-25.1

-4.9

-19.4%

16.3

65.1%

-17.4

-69.4%

-8.6

-34.3%

Inventory total

529.3

137.9

26.0%

164.5

31.1%

91.3

17.3%

91.9

17.4%

  1. These emissions estimates are reported using UNFCCC classifications.
  2. The State and Territory emissions estimates are consistent with the methodology applied for the 2019 National Greenhouse Gas Accounts. In future these estimates will be subject to revision in line with ongoing methodological development work being undertaken by the Department of the Industry, Science, Energy and Resources to refine the national inventory estimates.
  3. The difference between the national and the sum of the State and Territory emissions (less than 0.2%) reflects the inclusion of military transport and external territories in the national inventory. Numbers may also not sum to totals due to rounding.
  4. Uncertainty assessments at a sectoral level are reported in the national inventory. While no quantitative estimates have been produced, the department assesses that the uncertainties for emission estimates for these inventories, particularly the smaller States and Territories, will be somewhat higher than for the national inventory.
  5. The NSW inventory includes ACT emissions from the Stationary Energy sector.
  6. NA Not Applicable, IE Included Elsewhere, NO Not Occurring. Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding.
Table 3B: Sectoral breakdown of national, state, and territory greenhouse gas inventories and contribution to national emissions, 2019 (South Australia, Northern Territory, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory)

Sectors

Australia

South Australia

Northern Territory

Tasmania

Australian Capital Territory (partial inventory)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Emissions
(Mt CO2-e)

% Contribution to National Emissions

Energy

433.2

17.6

4.1%

13.4

3.1%

3.9

0.9%

1.1

0.3%

Stationary Energy

278.9

8.5

3.0%

6.1

2.2%

2.0

0.7%

0.0

0.0%

Energy Industries

213.8

4.5

2.1%

5.5

2.6%

0.3

0.2%

IE

IE

Electricity generation

179.4

3.6

2.0%

3.0

1.7%

0.3

0.2%

IE

IE

Other energy industries

34.4

0.9

2.7%

2.5

7.2%

0.0

0.0%

IE

IE

Manufacturing and construction

40.8

2.3

5.6%

0.4

0.9%

1.2

2.8%

IE

IE

Other sectors

23.6

1.7

7.2%

0.2

1.0%

IE

IE

IE

IE

Transport

100.3

6.7

6.6%

1.9

1.9%

1.8

1.8%

1.1

1.1%

Fugitive Fuels

54.7

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

IE

Industrial Processes

31.8

3.5

10.9%

0.1

0.4%

1.7

5.3%

0.2

0.6%

Agriculture

74.8

5.7

7.7%

3.6

4.8%

2.4

3.2%

0.0

0.0%

Livestock

54.0

3.7

6.8%

2.9

5.3%

1.8

3.3%

0.0

0.0%

Other Agriculture

20.8

2.0

9.8%

0.7

3.3%

0.6

3.0%

0.0

0.0%

Waste

13.8

0.9

6.6%

0.2

1.3%

0.4

2.8%

0.2

1.2%

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

-25.1

-3.8

-15.1%

3.3

13.2%

-10.0

-40.1%

-0.2

-0.8%

Inventory total

529.3

23.9

4.5%

20.6

3.9%

-1.7

-0.3%

1.3

0.2%

  1. These emissions estimates are reported using UNFCCC classifications.
  2. The State and Territory emissions estimates are consistent with the methodology applied for the 2019 National Greenhouse Gas Accounts. In future these estimates will be subject to revision in line with ongoing methodological development work being undertaken by the Department of the Industry, Science, Energy and Resources to refine the national inventory estimates.
  3. The difference between the national and the sum of the State and Territory emissions (less than 0.2%) reflects the inclusion of military transport and external territories in the national inventory. Numbers may also not sum to totals due to rounding.
  4. Uncertainty assessments at a sectoral level are reported in the national inventory. While no quantitative estimates have been produced, the department assesses that the uncertainties for emission estimates for these inventories, particularly the smaller States and Territories, will be somewhat higher than for the national inventory.
  5. The NSW inventory includes ACT emissions from the Stationary Energy sector.
  6. NA Not Applicable, IE Included Elsewhere, NO Not Occurring. Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding.

Time series data

Time series of greenhouse gas and black carbon emissions by state and territory are available in the data tables for this report.

Black carbon, an aerosol (airborne particle) emitted from combustion processes is emitted as a component of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres (≤ 2.5 μm) in diameter (PM2.5). Data from the National Pollutant Inventory has been used in conjunction with greenhouse gas data to derive national black carbon estimates. Estimates are provided of black carbon emissions for ‘energy’, ‘industrial processes and product use’, ‘waste’, ‘transport’, ‘residential burning’ and ‘biomass burning’.

Note: changes in black carbon emissions do not necessarily correlate to air quality or any health effects that may be attributed to air quality. Air quality is influenced by a wide range of factors, both natural and anthropogenic.  

National Inventory Report

Fulfils Australia’s international inventory reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. Estimates are prepared consistent with UNFCCC and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines.

Read the National Inventory Report 2019

National Inventory by Economic Sector

An overview of the latest available estimates of annual greenhouse gas emissions, by Australia-New Zealand Standard Industrial Classifications (ANZSIC).

Explore the National Inventory by Economic Sector

Quarterly Update of Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

The most up to date source of information on Australia’s national emissions, providing a summary of Australia’s national emissions.

Read the latest Quarterly Update

Australia’s emissions projections

Emissions projections are estimates of Australia's future greenhouse gas emissions and help determine how Australia is tracking against its emissions reduction targets. These provide detail on emissions trends, including sector specific analysis of factors driving emissions.

Read the latest emissions projections

Australia’s Fourth Biennial Report

Australia’s fourth Biennial Report is a comprehensive summary of Australia’s progress towards meeting its commitments under the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries like Australia must submit these reports to the UNFCCC every 2 years.

Read Australia’s Fourth Biennial Report on the UNFCCC website

Australian Greenhouse Emissions Information System (AGEIS)

The AGEIS centralises our department’s emissions estimation, emissions data management and reporting systems. We use AGEIS to compile national and state and territory inventories. The interactive web interface provides enhanced accessibility and transparency to Australia’s greenhouse emissions data.

Explore the AGEIS database (updated soon)

Full Carbon Accounting Model

The Full Carbon Accounting Model (FullCAM) is the calculation engine which supports the estimation of carbon stock change on forest and agricultural systems. FullCAM can be downloaded from the Department’s webpage.

Learn more about FullCAM

What the rest of the world is doing

Other developed countries are also required to produce annual greenhouse gas inventories.

Read about the reporting requirements and access international reports on the UNFCCC website

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