Further reading

Allom Lovell Architects (2002). Conservation Management Plan, Volume 2: Incorporating condition reports and recommendations for conservation works on 14 selected buildings, Allom Lovell Architects, Brisbane, Queensland, DME 243.

Environment Australia (2002). Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction, Australian Government, Canberra.

Graham A Brown & Associates & Westwood, A (2001). Waste management and minimisation guidebook, Thomson Reuters, Sydney.

ICOMOS (1964). International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites, http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.htm.

Koch, JM, Ward, SC (1994). ‘Establishment of understorey vegetation for rehabilitation of bauxite-mined areas in the jarrah forest of Western Australia’, Journal of Environmental Management, 41:1–15.

Koch, JM, Ward, SC, Grant, CD, Ainsworth, GL (1996). ‘Effects of bauxite mine restoration operations on topsoil seed reserves in the jarrah forest of Western Australia’, Restoration Ecology, 4(4):368–376.

McKenzie, NJ, Grundy, MJ, Webster, R, Ringrose-Voase, AJ (2008). Guidelines for surveying soil and land resources, 2nd edition, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Meers, T, Stokes, C, Unger, C, Dunbar, C (2008). ‘The discovery of a critically endangered plant; lessons learnt at Rio Tinto Alcan Gove mine’, paper presented at MCA SD08, Darwin, 15–19 September 2008.

National Committee for Soil and Terrain (2009). Australian soil and land survey field handbook, 3rd edition, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Norman, MA, Koch, JM, Grant, CD, Morald, TK, Ward, SC (2006). ‘Vegetation succession after bauxite mining in Western Australia’, Restoration Ecology, 14:278–288.

Thomas, I, Elliott, M (2009). Environmental impact assessment in Australia: theory and practice, 5th edition, Federation Press, Leichhardt, New South Wales.

Thomas, I (2005). Environmental management: processes and practices for Australia, Federation Press, Leichhardt, New South Wales.

Ward, SC, Koch, JM, Grant, CD (1997). ‘Ecological aspects of soil seed-banks in relation to bauxite mining. I. Unmined jarrah forest’, Australian Journal of Ecology, 22:169–176.

Australian environmental legislation websites

Australian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) (access to Australian, New Zealand and international legis- lation), http://www.austlii.edu.au.

Energy and emissions reporting and management

The ICMM has released the following publication on energy and emissions reporting:

Measurement, reporting and verification and the mining and metals industry, http://www.icmm.com/document/2660.

Other ICMM documents relating to energy and emissions management include:

The cost of carbon pricing: competitiveness implications for the mining and metals industry, http://www.icmm.com/document/5286.

Adapting to a changing climate: implications for the mining and metals industry, http://www.icmm.com/document/5173.

The role of mining and metals in land use and adaptation, www.icmm.com/document/2662.

Fugitive methane emissions in coal mining, http://www.icmm.com/document/2040.

References by jurisdiction



Department of the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/about/legislation.html.


Department of Environment and Heritage, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/legislation/.


Environment Protection Authority, http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/about-us/legislation.


Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/about/legislation/index.html.


Environmental Protection Authority, http://www.epa.wa.gov.au/AbouttheEPA/legislation/Pages/default.aspx.


Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/about-us/Legislation.


Environment Protection Authority, http://epa.tas.gov.au/policy/.


Environment and Planning Directorate, http://www.environment.act.gov.au/environment/environment_protection_authority/legislation_and_policies.


Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority, http://www.ntepa.nt.gov.au/about-nt-epa/legislation.



ComLaw, http://www.comlaw.gov.au.


NSW Parliamentary Counsel’s Office, http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/maintop/ scanact/inforce/NONE/0.


Victorian Law today, http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au.


Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel, https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/OQPChome.htm.


State Law Publisher, http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/default.html.


Attorney-General’s Department, http://www.legislation.sa.gov.au.


Tasmanian legislation, http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au.


ACT Legislation Register, http://www.legislation.act.gov.au.


Parliamentary Counsel, http://www.dcm.nt.gov.au/strong_service_delivery/supporting_government/parliamentary_counsel.

References relevant to uranium monitoring and management

Department of the Environment

Supervising Scientist. Annual report 2012–13, http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/supervising-scientist-annual-report-2012-2013.

Geoscience Australia

Australia’s in situ recovery uranium mining best practice guide: groundwaters, residues and radiation pro- tection, Canberra, 2010, http://www.ga.gov.au/webtemp/1549218/70503.pdf.

World Nuclear Association

Sustaining global best practices in uranium mining and processing: principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment, 2007, http://www.world-nuclear.org/WorkArea/linkit.aspx-?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=16982.

International Atomic Energy Agency

Monitoring and surveillance of residues from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium, Safety Re- ports series no. 27, Vienna, 2003, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1146_scr.pdf.

Radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry, Safety Reports series no. 34, Vienna, 2003, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1171_web.pdf.

Surveillance and monitoring of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste, Safety Reports series no. 35, Vienna, 2004, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1182_web.pdf.

Assessing the need for radiation protection measures in work involving minerals and raw materials, Safety Reports series no. 49, Vienna, 2007.

Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries, Safety Reports series no. 51, Vienna, 2007.

Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the production of rare earths from thorium con- taining minerals, Safety Reports series no. 68, Vienna, 2011, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1512_web.pdf.

Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the titanium dioxide and related industries, Safety Reports series no. 76, Vienna, (2012), http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1568_web.pdf.

Radiation protection and management of NORM residues in the phosphate industry, Safety Reports series no. 78, Vienna, 2013.

Management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of ores safety guide, Safety Standards series No. WS-G-1.2, Vienna, 2002, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1134_scr.pdf.

Occupational radiation protection in the mining and processing of raw materials safety guide, Safety Stan- dards series No. RS-G-1.6, Vienna, 2004, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1183_web.pdf.

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

Radiation Protection series

No. 1: Recommendations for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation (1995) and National standard for limiting occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (republished 2002), March 2002, http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps1.cfm.

No. 2: Code of practice for the safe transport of radioactive material, January 2008, http://www.arpansa. gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps2.cfm.

No. 2.1: Safety guide for the safe transport of radioactive material, August 2008, http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps2_1.cfm.

No. 9: Code of practice and safety guide for radiation protection and radioactive waste management in mining and mineral processing, August 2005, http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps9.cfm.

No. 15: Safety guide for the management of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), August 2008, http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps15.cfm.

No. 16: Safety guide for the predisposal management of radioactive waste, September 2008, http://www.arpansa.gov.au/Publications/Codes/rps16.cfm.

References relevant to cumulative impacts


Australian Government (2013). Significant impact guidelines 1.3: Coal seam gas and large coal mining developments—impacts on water resources, http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/significant-impact-guide-lines-13-coal-seam-gas-and-large-coal-mining-developments-impacts.

Department of Environment and Resource Management (2009). A study of the cumulative impacts on water quality of mining activities in the Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland Government, 49 pp.

Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2004). Cumulative effects assessment, integrated environmental management, Information Series 7, Pretoria, 20 pp. , www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/series7_cumulative_effects_assessment.pdf.

Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme: working together to protect river quality and sustain economic development, www.epa.nsw.gov.au/resources/licensing/hrsts/hrsts.pdf.

Mason, L, Unger, C, Lederwasch, A, Razian, H, Wynne, L, Giurco, D (2013). Adapting to climate risks and extreme weather: a guide for mining and minerals industry professionals, National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Gold Coast, 76 pp, www.nccarf.edu.au/publications/climate-risks-extreme-weather-guide-mining.

Vink, S, Hoey, D, Robbins, S, Roux, E (2013). Regulating mine water releases using water quality trading, International Mine Water Association, Reliable Mine Water Technology, Golden, Colorado.

Sustainable development—triple bottom line

Ministry of Mines and Energy (2010). Strategic environmental assessment for the central Namib uranium rush, Windhoek, Namibia.

International Finance Corporation (2013). Good practice handbook: cumulative impact assessment and management guidance for the private sector in emerging markets.

Global Reporting Initiative (2011). Sustainability reporting guidelines and mining and metals sector supplement version 3.0, www.globalreporting.org/resourcelibrary/MMSS-Complete.pdf.

Franks, DM, Brereton, D, Moran, CJ, Sarker, T, Cohen, T (2010a). Cumulative impacts: a good practice guide for the Australian coal mining industry, Australian Coal Association Research Program, Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining and Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, www.csrm.uq.edu.au/docs/CSRM%20SMI%20Good%20Practice%20Guide%20document%20LR.PDF.

Franks, DM, Brereton, D, Moran, CJ (2013). ‘The cumulative dimensions of impact in resource regions’, Resources Policy, 38:640–647.

Franks DM, Brereton, D, Moran, CJ (2010). ‘Managing the cumulative impacts of coal mining on regional communities and environments in Australia’, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 28(4):299–312.

Standards and guidelines relating to auditing and performance

Australian and New Zealand standards

AS/NZS ISO 14004:2004 Environmental management systems—General guidelines on principles, systems and support, Standards Australia.

AS/NZS ISO 14015:2003 Environmental management—Environmental assessment of sites and organizations (EASO), Standards Australia.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council & Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (2000). Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality, ARMCANZ, Canberra.

—— (2000). Australian guidelines for water quality monitoring and reporting, National Water Quality Management Strategy, Canberra.

International Organization for Standardization standards

For standards in the ISO 1400 series, see http://www.iso14000-iso14001-environmental-management.com/iso14000.htm.

Other ‘standards’ in the series are guidelines, many of which are designed to help companies achieve certification to ISO 14001:2004. They include the following:

  • ISO 14004:2004 provides guidance on the development and implementation of environmental management systems.
  • ISO 14020:2000 covers labelling issues.
  • ISO 14030+ provides guidance on performance.
  • ISO 14040:2006 covers life-cycle issues.
  • ISO 19011:2002 provides guidance on the principles of auditing quality and environmental management systems, and is applicable to all other types of management system auditing.

Other standards and guidelines

ASTM International, Standard E1528–06 Standard practice for environmental site assessments: transaction screen process, ASTM.

—— E1527–05 Standard practice for environmental site assessments: Phase I environmental site assessment process, ASTM.

—— E1903—97 (2002) Standard practice for environmental site assessments: Phase II environmental site assessment process, ASTM.

Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (2008). ASAE 3100 Compliance engagements, AUASB, September 2008.

——2007, ASAE 3000 Assurance engagements other than audits or reviews of historical financial information 2007, AUASB, July 2007.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2005). Greenhouse challenge plus energy audit tool, consisting of 11 energy audit protocols, http://www.environment.gov.au/settlements/challenge/members/energyaudittools.html.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (2006). Compliance audit handbook, DEC, 2006/13, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/licensing/cahandbook0613.pdf.

South Australian Environment Protection Authority (2003). Protection for voluntary environmental audits, 013/03, September.

Victorian Environment Protection Authority (2007). Environmental auditor guidelines for conducting environmental audits, publication 953.2, August 2007.

World Bank (1995). ‘Environmental Auditing’, Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update 11, Environment Department, Washington DC.

World Bank Group (1998). ‘Environmental audits in industrial projects’, Pollution prevention and abatement handbook, July.

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