Appendix 2: Typical elements of a monitoring and performance evaluation program

Table A2.1: Typical environmental elements of a mining project’s monitoring and performance evaluation program

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

GENERAL

Site inspections / facility audits Water, soils/erosion, land clearance, flora/fauna, noise, air quality, hazardous materials and general waste management Weekly Weekly Quarterly/ yearly Commitments specified in site Environmental Management Plan.
Meteorology Rainfall, evaporationc, temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity etc. Daily/ continuous Daily/ continuous Daily / continuous (remote) / as required n.a.
Hydrology— upstream and downstream of site Flow rate (discharge)d, water level Daily/ continuous Daily/ continuous Daily (remote) / as required Minimal alteration of downstream hydrology.
Sediment transport / geomorpholo- gy—upstream and down- stream of site Erosion and sediment transport rates (fluviale and/or aeolian processes), composition, geomorphology (visual; surveyed cross-sections/ profiles; remote sensing; digital terrain modelling) Baseline Quarterly / half-yearly (seasonal) / yearly / event-based Quarterly/ yearly n.a.
Surface water quality— upstream and downstream of site General water quality parameters (field)f Quarterly Daily / weekly / event-based Quarterly/ yearly State/national water quality guidelines for ambient surface water / drinking water (e.g. ANZECC– ARMCANZ 2000b; NHMRC

 

2004). Baseline and upstream. Collaboration with other stakeholders recommended for reference data collection if required.

Surface water quality— upstream and downstream of site General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Quarterly Weekly / monthly / event-based Quarterly/ yearly State/national water quality guidelines for ambient surface water drinking water (e.g. ANZECC–ARMCANZ 2000; NHMRC 2004).

 

Baseline and upstream. Collaboration with other stakeholders recommended for reference data collection if required.

Hydrogeology— upgradient and downgradient of site (including public/private water supply bores)

Groundwater levels Monthly/ quarterly Weekly/ monthly Quarterly/ yearly Minimal alteration of groundwater levels beyond the project boundary.
General water quality parameters (field)f Monthly/ quarterly Weekly/ monthly Quarterly/ yearly

State/national water quality guidelines for groundwater / drinking water. Baseline and upgradient data.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Quarterly/ yearly Monthly/ quarterly Quarterly/ yearly

Site water balance

Flow rates / pump rates Baseline Daily n.a.

Sufficient but not excessive volume of water on site.

Water levels and volumes in storage facilities n.a. Daily Daily (remote)/ as required

Site acidity/ salinity/ contaminant load balance

Site water balance (see above) See above See above See above

No evidence of significant increase in acidity, salinity or contaminant loads over time associated with the project.

Acidity/salinity/ contaminant concentrations Baseline Weekly/ monthly/ quarterly Daily (remote) / as required

Discharge water

Flow rates, water levels n.a. Continuous/ daily/

 

event-based

n.a.

State/national/international water quality guidelines for discharge water (e.g. IFC 2007a). Mixing zones important.

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Continuous / daily /

 

event-based

n.a.
General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Monthly / quarterly / event-based n.a.

Drinking water supply (project site and potentially affected communities)

General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline; Weekly Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

State/national/international water quality guidelines for drinking water (e.g. NHMRC 2004; WHO 2004).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline; Monthly/ quarterly Monthly/ quarterly Quarterly/ yearly
Terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. revegetated waste rock pile covers, other rehabilitated areas, reference sites); groundwater ecosystems Indicators of ecosystem health, diversity and sustainability, extent of vegetation cover / cleared land, dieback / tree decline or bare patches (if any), diversity of flora, indicator fauna species (e.g. mammals, avifauna, invertebrates, stygofauna), feral animals, mosquito / health risk vectors, soil/ plant pathogens, abundance of weeds, bushfire risk / control measures; human food chain indicators (e.g. bush tucker, fish, crustaceans, mammals). See Biodiversity management and Mine rehabilitation handbooks. Baseline Half-yearly/ yearly Half-yearly/ yearly Baseline and reference site data on natural ecosystems and rehabilitated areas.
Riparian ecosystems— reference and impact sites (ambient) Indicator species of riparian flora/fauna— determine whether groundwater / baseflow dependent ecosystem (GDE) (groundwater and surface water monitoring as well as water use by plants to determine whether dependent upon baseflow or other water sources) Baseline/ seasonal (late dry season to determine water source(s) used by potential GDEs) Seasonal Seasonal Baseline and reference site data. Target set by groundwater extraction rates for drawdown or other potential impact and monitored signs of tree stress/decline.
Aquatic ecosystems— reference and impact sites (ambient) Indicator species (e.g. algae, micro-/

 

macro-invertebrates, fish, other vertebrates); refer to Biodiversity management handbook

Baseline; monthly / yearly (taxa and ecosystem specific) Monthly / yearly (taxa and ecosystem specific) / event-based Half-yearly (seasonal) / yearly Reference site aquatic fauna/ flora.
Aquatic ecosystems— direct toxicity assessment Indicator species (e.g. algae, macro- invertebrates, fish, larger vertebrates); refer to Biodiversity management handbook As appropriate for pilot plant / bench test effluents As required As required Trigger value as determined by ANZECC–ARMCANZ

 

(2000) procedures.

Aquatic ecosystems— environmental flows Flow regime alteration (see above – Hydrology) Baseline over several seasons/ years (hydrology; flow dependency of aquatic and riparian biota) See above (hydrology, aquatic and riparian ecosystems). Will need specific indicators included in monitoring. See above (hydrology, aquatic and riparian ecosystems) Minimal alteration of flow regime, particularly base flows and timing and frequency of peak flow events. Flow dependent ecosystem status. Minimal alteration of organism distributions.
Aquatic ecosystems— environmental flows Flow regime alteration (see above—‘Hydrology’) Baseline (hydrology; flow dependency of aquatic and riparian biota) See above (hydrology, aquatic and riparian ecosystems) See above (hydrology, aquatic and riparian ecosystems) Minimal alteration of flow regime, particularly base flows and timing and frequency of peak flow events. Flow-dependent ecosystem status. Minimal alteration of organism distributions.
Aquatic ecosystems— organism passage Passage design and operation; organism passage and persistence; upstream and downstream Baseline (passage requirements of aquatic and riparian biota) Yearly/ event-based Yearly/ event-based Minimal alteration of organism distributions. Organism passage rates unchanged.
Soils (including soil cover materials) General chemical parameters (e.g. pH, electrical conductivity), composition, geochemical classificationh, moisture content, porosity, permeability, structure, texture, organic matter content, soil erosion, soil biota, stockpile quantities, quality and longevity, extent/nature of contamination Baseline As required for rehabilitation planning / water quality control Quarterly/ yearly n.a.
Grazing animals— baseline and reference sites Carrying capacity of paddocks, grazing trials, pasture production, weeds and pests Baseline Yearly (seasonal) Yearly (seasonal) Targets set as part of post-mining land use for grazing (community

 

requirement / condition of mining lease).

Intensive agriculture/ horticulture— baseline and reference sites Crop production / biomass, soil quality, erosion (e.g. alluvial areas); soil chemistry and physical properties (see above—‘Soils’) Baseline Seasonal (crop cycles) Seasonal (crop cycles) Production targets for post-mining land use (agreed pre-mining).
Ambient noise— control sites, sensitive receptors and on site Noise (e.g. A-weighted decibels) Baseline As required / during selected blasts n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b)

Ambient air quality— control sites, sensitive receptors and on site

Depositional dust (e.g. rate of deposition, composition), suspended dust (e.g. PM10) Baseline As required / during selected blasts n.a. Baseline and upwind data.
Airborne contaminants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, PM10, carbon monoxide) Baseline Monthly/ quarterly n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).
Energy consumption Direct energy consumption (fuels); indirect energy consumption (electricity) Baseline Yearly n.a. Baseline data. Production efficiency / energy use ratio is maintained or improved.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Direct emissions from power stations / smelters (see below) and vehicles/machinery/ plant used on site (carbon dioxide equivalent) Baseline Yearly n.a.

Baseline data. Production efficiency / emissions ratio is maintained or improved.

Indirect emissions associated with electricity use (carbon dioxide equivalent) Baseline Yearly n.a.
Hazardous material consumption Rate of hazardous material consumption (process chemicals, explosives etc.); refer to Hazardous materials management handbook Monthly/ quarterly Monthly/ quarterly n.a. n.a.
Hydrocarbon consumption Rate of hydrocarbon consumption (fuels, oils, lubricants etc.) Monthly/ quarterly Monthly/ quarterly n.a. n.a.
Radiation Radon emanation and gamma radiation from ore stockpiles, tailings mass and rehabilitated tailings impoundment; radiologically contaminated waste disposal sites for scrap metal etc.; radionuclide mobility in drainage (to surface water and groundwater); radionuclides in airborne dust (applies to all industries working with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), not just uranium, thorium and mineral sands); OHS measures Environmental baseline from pre-mining survey data. Operational baseline from pilot plant, trial plots,

 

lab-based samples and modelling

Frequent early measurement (to verify model data), then adjust according to variations in ore grade / composition and changes in operations

 

/ technology used (e.g. include ventilation outlets if underground operations commence)

Frequency depends on parameter (e.g. immediately after operations / residue containment, frequency may be continuous for radon) and authorisation, often

 

half-yearly or seasonal

Radiological standards. Radiation safety and OHS and environmental monitoring all to be integrated.

Emergency response (e.g. spill)— location of emergency; receiving environment (e.g. surface water, groundwater, soil)

General water quality parameters (field)f

Event-based

Event-based

Event-based

Minimal risk to receiving environment.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g
Extent/nature of soil contamination
Ecosystem impacts (e.g. terrestrial/groundwater/ riparian/aquatic ecosystems)
Environmental

 

/ social safetyi

Geotechnical hazards (e.g. landslip, collapse); natural hazards (e.g. bushfire, storm, flood, earthquake, extreme heat/cold); chemical, biological (e.g. fungus) or radiological hazards; personal exposure / ambient (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, temperature, smoke, dust, illumination) As required As required n.a. Environmental/social safety risks minimised.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

WASTE ROCK AND ORE STOCKPILES

Waste rock and

ore material

Waste rock and ore production rates, mass/ volume of waste rock piles (including location/ amounts of different waste rock materials) and ore stockpiles Modelled predictions Daily n.a. Modelled data.
Geochemical characterisation of lithologiesh Baseline / as required As required As required Geochemical condition not threatening rehabilitated landscape or downstream ecosystems.
Hydrology (surface run-off and seepage) Flow rates (surface run-off, surface seepage), water levels n.a. Weekly Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

Water quality (surface

run-off and seepage)

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Baseline and upstream data. Predicted water quality.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Hydrogeology (water in waste rock piles; groundwater upgradient, beneath and downgradient of piles)

Infiltration rates and moisture content in waste rock piles (pore pressure / hydraulic / lysimeter data) n.a. Quarterly As required Target/design infiltration rates.
Water levels; volume of pore water in waste rock piles; mass/ volume of waste rock exposed to oxygen n.a. Monthly Quarterly/ yearly n.a.
Geophysical survey (e.g. time domain electromagnetic; resistivity) to map subsurface conductivity and seepage flow pathways As required As required As required n.a.
General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

State/national guidelines for groundwater quality.

Baseline and upgradient.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Quarterly Quarterly/ yearly
Geotechnical stability Erosion, subsidence, landslips, water levels (see above) n.a. Daily/weekly Yearly/as required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

TAILINGS STORAGE FACILITIES, TAILINGS DAMS

Tailings material

Milling and tailing production rates, mass/ volume transferred to tailings storage facilities Modelled predictions Weekly n.a. Modelled data.
Geochemical characterisationh Baseline / as required As required n.a. Geochemical condition not threatening rehabilitated landscape or downstream ecosystems.
Hydrology (supernatant water) Volume, water level, flow rate of tailings into facility, flow rate of decant pumps, spillway flow rates n.a. Daily Daily (remote) / as required n.a.
Hydrology (surface seepage) Flow rate, water level n.a. Weekly/ monthly Daily (remote)/as required n.a.

Water quality (supernatant water and surface seepage)

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. or modelled Weekly/event based Quarterly/ yearly

Site-specific water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ 2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Hydrogeology (pore water in tailings; groundwater upgradient, beneath and downgradient of tailings storage facilities)

Water levels; mass/ volume tailings exposed to oxygen Baseline Monthly Quarterly/ yearly n.a.
Geophysical survey (e.g. time domain electromagnetic; resistivity) to map subsurface conductivity and seepage flow pathways As required As required As required n.a.
General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

State/national guidelines for groundwater quality.

Baseline and upgradient data.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline Quarterly Quarterly/ yearly
Fauna Avifauna, mammals, livestock Baseline Weekly; event-based Yearly No evidence of project- related fauna deaths.
Geotechnical stability Erosion, subsidence, landslips, supernatant and groundwater levels (see above); tailings density, strength (penetrometer) and water content (water liberated by consolidation and ability to support a cover if required); refer to Tailings management handbook Modelled predictions Daily/weekly/ event-based Yearly/as required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

PITS / OPEN CUTS

Pit wall material (groundwater cone of depression)

Mass/volume of material exposed to oxygen Modelled predictions As required As required Modelled data.
Geochemical characterisation of lithologiesh Baseline/as required As required As required Geochemical condition not threatening rehabilitated landscape or downstream ecosystems.
Pit hydrology

 

/ stormwater

Dewatering pump flow rates Modelled predictions Daily As required n.a.

Pit water quality

General water quality parameters (field)f Modelled predictions Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Modelled predictions Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Pit hydrogeology (groundwater cone of depression)

Groundwater levels, flow rates (e.g. dewatering bores) Modelled predictions Weekly Quarterly/ yearly Modelled data.
General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Blasting

Ground vibration and airblast overpressure n.a. All blasts monitored n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. Standards Australia 1998).
Noise, flyrock (distance travelled) n.a. Selected blasts n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b). No flyrock beyond safety exclusion zone.
Geotechnical stability (pit wall material) Erosion, subsidence, landslips, groundwater levels (see above) n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based Yearly/as required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

UNDERGROUND MINES

Dewatered material (cone of depression)

Mass/volume of material exposed to oxygen Modelled predictions Monthly As required Modelled data.
Geochemical characterisation of lithologiesh Baseline; As required As required n.a. Geochemical condition not threatening rehabilitated landscape or downstream ecosystems.

Hydrogeology (groundwater cone of depression)

Groundwater levels and flow rates (dewatering bores); adit flows Baseline; Monthly Weekly Quarterly/ Yearly n.a.
General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline; Monthly Weekly Quarterly/ Yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline; Monthly Monthly Quarterly/ Yearly

Blasting

Ground vibration and airblast over-pressure (above ground) n.a. All blasts monitored n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. Standards Australia 1998).
Noise (above ground) n.a. Selected blasts n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).
Geotechnical stability Wallrock stability, subsidence (above ground), landslips n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based As required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.
Underground air quality, fungus See below— Occupational health and safety (OHS) (OHS)i (OHS)i (OHS)i (OHS) i

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

HEAP AND DUMP LEACH PILES

Ore material

Ore production rates, mass/volume of ore in leach pad Modelled predictions Daily n.a. Modelled data.
Geochemical characterisation of lithologiesh Baseline/as required As required n.a. Geochemical condition not threatening rehabilitated landscape or downstream ecosystems.
Hydrology (surface run-off and seepage) Flow rates, water levels n.a. Daily Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

Water quality (surface runoff and seepage)

General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Hydrogeology (groundwater upgradient, beneath and down gradient of heap leach pad /leach piles)

Groundwater levels Baseline Weekly Quarterly/ yearly n/a
Geophysical survey (e.g. time domain electromagnetic) to map subsurface flow As required As required As required n/a
General water quality parameters (field)f Baseline Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

State/national guidelines for groundwater quality.

Baseline and upgradient.

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g Baseline Monthly Quarterly/ yearly
Geotechnical stability Erosion, subsidence, landslips n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based As required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

HAUL ROADS, ACCESS ROADS, EXPLORATION ROADS, DRILL PADS

Road runoff/ surface seepage water quality

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a.

Event-based; as required

Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a.
Ambient noise Noise (e.g. A-weighted decibels) Baseline As required n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).
Geotechnical stability Erosion, subsidence, landslips Daily/ weekly/ event-based Daily/weekly/ event-based As required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.
Aquatic ecosystems— organism passage Passage design and operation; organism passage and persistence upstream and downstream Baseline (passage requirements of aquatic and riparian biota) Yearly/ event-based Yearly/ event-based Minimal alteration of organism distributions. Organism passage rates unchanged.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

QUARRIES

Pit water quality

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Blasting

Ground vibration, airblast overpressure, flyrock (distance travelled) n.a. All blasts monitored n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. Standards Australia 1998).
Noise (e.g. A-weighted decibels) n.a. Selected blasts n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).
Geotechnical stability Geotechnical stability (erosion, subsidence, landslips) n.a. Daily/ weekly/ event-based As required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

Stack/flue emissions Airborne contaminants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, PM10, carbon monoxide) n.a. As required n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

ORE CRUSHING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES

Process water; site run-off/bund water

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based n.a.

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Weekly/ event-based n.a.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

PRIMARY SMELTING FACILITIES

Stack/flue emissions Airborne contaminants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, PM10, carbon monoxide) n.a. As required n.a. State/national/international guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007b).

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

WATER STORAGES, SEDIMENT BASINS, ETC.

Hydrology Flow rates, water levels n.a. Event-based

 

/ as required

Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

Water quality

General water quality parameters (field)f n.a. Event-based/ as required Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Event-based

 

/ as required

Quarterly/ yearly
Sedimentation Bathymetry (visual; surveyed cross-sections/ profiles; remote sensing; digital terrain modelling); water storage capacity/ residence time; sediment composition n.a. Event-based/ as required Quarterly/ yearly Engineering design specifications.
Geotechnical stability Erosion, subsidence, landslips n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based Quarterly/ yearly Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.
Aquatic ecosystems— organism passage Passage design and operation; organism passage and persistence upstream and downstream Baseline (passage requirements of aquatic and riparian biota) Yearly/ event-based Yearly/ event-based Minimal alteration of organism distributions. Organism passage rates unchanged.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

Hydrology Flow rates, water levels n.a. Event-based/ as required Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

Water quality/odour (influent, effluent)

General water quality parameters (field)f, odour n.a. Continuous/ weekly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Continuous/ monthly/ seasonal Quarterly/ yearly
Sedimentation Bathymetry (visual; surveyed cross-sections/ profiles; remote sensing; digital terrain modelling); water storage capacity/ residence time; sediment composition n.a. Event-based

 

/ as required

Quarterly/ yearly Engineering design specifications.
Geotechnical stability Geotechnical stability (erosion, subsidence, landslips) n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based Yearly/as required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.
Wetland vegetation Vegetation health and diversity n.a. Monthly/ seasonal Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

OTHER WATER TREATMENT FACILITIES (E.G. DRINKING WATER, GREYWATER, SEWERAGE)

Water consumption

 

/ wastewater generation

Flow rates, water levels n.a. Daily/weekly n.a. n.a.

Water quality/odour (influent, effluent)

General water quality parameters (field)f, odour n.a. Daily/ weekly n.a.

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or drinking water quality guidelines (e.g.

NHMRC 2004; WHO 2004).

General and detailed water quality parameters (laboratory)g n.a. Weekly/ monthly n.a.

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION / FEASIBILITY PHASEb

CONSTRUCTION / OPERATIONS PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE (E.G. 3+ YEARS

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES

Waste generation Rate of solid waste generation, reuse, recycling and disposal, according to type Weekly/ monthly Weekly n.a. n.a.
Hydrology (leachate/ run-off) Flow rates Weekly/ monthly Weekly/ monthly Quarterly/ yearly n.a.

Water quality/odour (leachate/ run-off)

General water quality parameters (field)f, odour Weekly/ monthly Weekly/ monthly Quarterly/ yearly

Water quality criteria (onsite use) or discharge water quality guidelines (e.g. IFC 2007a; ANZECC–ARMCANZ

2000).

General and detailed water quality para- meters (laboratory)g Monthly/ quarterly Monthly/ quarterly Quarterly/ yearly
Direct toxicity assessment (macro- invertebrates, fish, larger vertebrates); refer to Biodiversity management handbook Monthly/ quarterly Monthly/ quarterly As required Trigger value as determined by ANZECC–ARMCANZ

 

(2000) procedures.

Geotechnical stability Geotechnical stability (erosion, subsidence, landslips) n.a. Daily/weekly/ event-based Yearly/as required Engineering design specifications; rehabilitation objectives.
Visual Pests/scavengers/litter Daily Daily Quarterly/ yearly n.a.
  1. Monitoring frequency for some locations may need to be higher during the wet season (and high-flow periods) and lower during the dry season (and low/no-flow periods). A higher frequency will also be required before/during offsite discharge (e.g. in the case of downstream surface water monitoring). A trend towards continuous monitoring of environmental parameters is emerging as new technologies are being developed to enable more cost-effective and remote monitoring; continuous monitoring facilitates the identification of acute impacts (e.g. pulses of contaminated water) as well as long-term trends. Certain projects may require a higher monitoring frequency during closure than after closure; monitoring frequencies for closure/post-closure are combined here for simplification.
  2. Monitoring frequency during the exploration/feasibility phase may vary with the expected time before commencement of operations.
  3. Calibration of pan evaporation factors required to ensure water balance uses accurate evaporation data/assumptions.
  4. Calibration/rating curve for each stream gauging station to enable conversion of water-level data to flow rates.
  5. Estimation of fluvial sediment transport rates is facilitated by continuous hydrology monitoring data (see ‘Hydrology’).
  6. General field parameters may include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity/salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential.
  7. In some cases, more detailed parameters (e.g. particular metals or other contaminants of concern) need to be monitored at a similar frequency to general field parameters. This may involve onsite laboratory analysis or the use of field test kits.
  8. Relevant parameters may include total suspended solids, acidity/alkalinity, major ions and ligands, metals, nutrients, organic carbon, hydrocarbons, E. coli, total coliforms, and other potential site-specific contaminants (e.g. cyanide species, radionuclides).
  9. Geochemical characterisation typically involves a combination of static tests (e.g. acid-base accounting, geochemical composition, mineralogy) and kinetic tests (column leach tests, sulphide oxidation rate tests, in-situ measurement of pore space oxygen concentration). Refer to the Preventing acid and metalliferous drainage handbook.
  10. More general occupational health and safety (OHS) aspects are beyond the scope of this handbook; see IFC (2007b) for further guidance. Sources: ANZECC–ARMCANZ (2000); IFC (2007a, 2007b); NHMRC (2004); Standards Australia (1998); WHO (2004).

Table A2.2: Typical social elements of a mining project’s monitoring and performance evaluation program

ELEMENT

PARAMETERS

INDICATIVE FREQUENCYa

PERFORMANCE

EVALUATION CRITERIA

EXPLORATION/ FEASIBILITY

PHASEB

CONSTRUCTION/ OPERATIONS

PHASE

CLOSURE /

POST-CLOSURE PHASE

Archaeology and Indigenous cultural heritage/ physical cultural resources (PCR) Cultural heritage sites, grave sites, archaeological sites/ artefacts, spiritual beliefs and practices Baseline As required As negotiated, as part of closure plan Culturally significant sites and artefacts are preserved.
Built Physical infrastructure/ investment; buildings, transportation, traffic movement on/off site, community facilities and communications Baseline/ yearly Yearly; traffic movement ongoing As negotiated, as part of closure plan Utilisation of community amenity, housing availability, use of public transportation, impacts of traffic quantified and managed, volume of private (home) ownership.
Community grievances and attitudes Social disturbances (e.g. noise, traffic) and complaints; community attitude towards the mining project Baseline Weekly/ monthly Quarterly/ yearly Continued community support for the project; community complaints and suggestions addressed.
Compensation Number of people affected, nature and extent of disturbance to land/assets/livelihood; measures taken to compensate for loss/ disturbance As required As required As required Affected persons are appropriately compensated.
Governance Formal and informal leadership structures, political systems and protocols, capacity to respond to development Baseline/ yearly As required Yearly Time taken for development approvals, voting turnout, local support for local/ municipal government.
Health and nutrition Health/nutrition surveys (general health, diet, exposure to hazardous materials, drinking water quality, drug use, air quality, access to sanitation and health services, incidence of prevalent illnesses and sexually transmitted infections) Baseline/ yearly Quarterly/ yearly As negotiated, as part of closure plan State of health and nutrition is maintained or improved, increase in dysfunctional behaviours, increased vulnerability of subpopulations (elderly, women, youth).
Human Skills, knowledge, education, expertise, in-out migration Baseline/ yearly Quarterly/ yearly As negotiated, as part of closure plan Portion of people remaining in community after high school, high school diplomacy rates, portion of operational workforce that have remained in the community for [timeframe], retention rates, vocational enrolment rates.
Incidents Traffic incidents; project-related injuries; downstream impacts associated with discharge events As required As required As required Rate of incidence declines.
Indigenous cultural elements in rehabilitation Bush tucker, habitat for key wildlife, biodiversity related to traditional diet Baseline Frequent in early stages; half-yearly after initial rehabilitation; yearly thereafter Yearly Conservation and transplanting of key elements, protection of specific areas from disturbance followed by monitoring return of key species, consultant to assess community satisfaction.
Land use Land and asset surveys; land use requirements and impacts; economic value of land, assets and natural resources; grazing animals and intensive agriculture/ horticulture (see Table A2.1) Baseline As required Yearly Natural resources are maintained or improved.
Livelihood/ socioe conomics Livelihood/ socioeconomic surveys (employment, income, financial resources, living costs, living conditions), economic diversity opportunities (dependency), job creation activities Baseline/ yearly Quarterly/ yearly As negotiated, as part of closure plan Employment (level of workforce participation in local community, unemployment rates), income, land and assets are maintained or improved relative to living costs; wellbeing is maintained or improved.
Non- indigenous cultural heritage/ practice Heritage significance, rates of decay, stability, safety As required Yearly Yearly Conservation requirements of National Estate listing or state/ territory heritage listings and/or heritage guidelines.
Pre-existing historic underground workings and shafts Safety controls, bat populations, tourism use/impacts, interpretive plans, progress toward implementation, economic measures of community value Baseline As required As required Conservation plans, safety risk assessment control measures.
Social Community networks, cooperation and relationships, social and civic participation, local and regional community leadership, social norms, pace of change of vulnerable communities Baseline/ yearly Quarterly/ yearly As negotiated, as part of closure plan New families in the region participating in community services, rise/ fall of social programs.
Visual/ aesthetics Photography, aerial photography/remote sensing Baseline Yearly Yearly n.a.
Water quality, hydrology, hydrogeology, air quality (including dust), noise, vibration/ airblast/ flyrock, flora and fauna See Table A2.1 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Water use Downstream water use surveys (e.g. drinking, fishing/aquaculture, irrigation/farming, livestock, washing, bathing, small-scale mining, hydropower, recreation, cultural significance etc.) Baseline/ yearly Quarterly/ yearly Yearly Natural resources are maintained or improved.

a Monitoring frequency during the exploration/feasibility phase may vary with the expected time before commencement of operations.

b Monitoring frequency during the exploration/feasibility phase may vary with the expected time before commencement of operations.

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