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Through consultation with industry and researchers, and technical work for this Statement, a range of prospective low emissions technologies and enablers were identified that could play an important role over the long-term. Generally, these technologies are at a very early stage of development.

This category also includes technologies where Australia will more likely be the recipient of technological advances and lower costs driven by overseas developments. Many technologies in the transport sector fall into this group, including battery, hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and more efficient internal combustion engine vehicles.

Examples of technologies in the watching brief are outlined in Table 2. The Government will continue to monitor international developments and ensure Australian households and businesses are able to exercise consumer choice and adopt the latest technologies, where it makes sense for them to do so.

Table 2: Watching brief technologies




Small modular reactors (SMRs), ultra-low-cost transmission, next generation Allam Cycle generation technologies


More efficiency and zero emissions drivetrains, mode shift technologies, and low emissions aircraft


Low carbon building materials, building integrated PV (e.g. solar PV tiles), and new refrigerants

Other sectors

Range of early-stage negative emissions technologies (e.g. direct air capture)

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