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Explore STEM-qualified industry data

See the gender distribution of women and men in senior positions in STEM, non-STEM and health industries in 2019.


See the proportion of women in STEM, non-STEM and health industries in 2019, and the gender pay gap.


Compare the gender pay gap by industry in 2019, and see the proportion of organisations with gender equity strategies and policies.

Source for all graphs: Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) 2019

Data insights

In 2019, women comprised 36% of senior managers across all industries. In all but one STEM industry with available data, women comprised a smaller proportion of the senior managers. This was not the case in the STEM industry of ‘Scientific research services’ where women are well represented—they comprised 67% of its workforce and 50% of senior management. Comparatively, women comprised only 29% of the ‘Architectural, engineering and technical services’ industry workforce and 19% of its senior management.

In 2019, women earned 19% less pay than men in STEM-qualified industries, and earned 21% less pay than men across all industries. Only 5 out of the 12 STEM-qualified industries with available data had a smaller pay gap than the average gap seen across all industries. Additionally, half of the STEM industries with available data exceeded the all industry average pay difference of $25,679.

The STEM-qualified industry with the largest pay gap was ‘Other machinery and equipment manufacturing’ (women earned 27% less pay than men in this industry). The ‘Automotive repair and maintenance’ industry had the smallest pay gap among the STEM-qualified industries (women earned approximately 4% less pay than men in this industry). This industry also had the smallest difference in pay (in dollars) at $3,356.

In 2019, 98% of all industries had sex-based harassment and discrimination prevention policies or strategies in place. In STEM-qualified industries, between 95% and 100% of organisations in 11 (out of 12) industries reported having these polices or strategies in place. The remaining industry was the ‘Automotive repair and maintenance’ industry, where only 88% of organisations in this industry reported having sex-based harassment and discrimination prevention policies or strategies in place in 2019.

Understanding the data

Industries within the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industry Classification (ANZSIC) are defined as STEM-qualified when the majority (more than 50%) of people in the industry reported a qualification in a STEM field of education in the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Data is from non-public sector organisations with 100 or more employees that reported to the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA).

Data for some industries are not available due to insufficient sample sizes of organisations within these industries that reported to the WGEA.

See how WGEA collects data.

Read more about our methodology and this data.